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linguistics compounding

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Found inside – Page 104Besides, even with those languages in Nigeria, for instance, in which a fair amount of attention has been devoted to the description of compounding - Yorùbá ... (Hons) VI Semester Course: Linguistics and the Structure of English Language- II Course Code: BAE 323 Teacher: Namrata Rathore Mahanta (English Section, MMV) Materials are presented in an educational context for use of students of B.A. Štekauer, in Chapter 14, interrelates the word-formation and word-interpretation models in order to explain the predictability of the meanings of novel context-free compounds; his model explores the idea that there are always one or two dominant meanings ‘winning’ the competition among different potential meanings as a result of interplay between linguistic and extralinguistic factors. Nevertheless, the majority of theorists—and us among them—seem to believe that it's worth looking further. It is often said that English compounds bear stress on the left-hand constituent, whereas syntactic phrases carry a level stress or are stressed on the head, i.e. . An example of a "bare-stem compound" is the English word worm cans (e.g. A compound has the ability to modify the action of a target molecule involved in a disease . Spencer in fact argues that it is impossible to distinguish compounds from phrases in English on any basis, and indeed that within a theory like Chomsky's Bare Phrase Structure, there is no need to do so. Pavol Stekauer. But this puts the cart before the horse: if we acknowledge that the spoken language is primary, and the writing system only an artficial system designed to capture the spoken word, there must clearly be some criteria which lead writers to write a sequence as one In order to study compound words, it is very important to study the structure of a sentence because compound word in essence, is a condensed form of a sentence. • Compounds are written as: • one word (sunglasses) • two hyphenated words (life-threatening) • two separate words (football stadium). Found insideRalli, A. (2007), ΗΣύνθεση Λέξεων: Διαγλωσσική Μορφολογική Προσέγγιση (Compounding: A Cross-linguistic Morphological Approach) [in Greek], Athens: Patakis. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem. Therefore, we can say a very black bird if, say, we are pointing at a crow, but not *a very black bird if it is genus agelaius we are pointing out. The distinction reaches back at least to Bloomfield's work of the 1930s. for more details. He is the author of A Theory of Conversion in English (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1996), An Onomasiological Theory of English Word-Formation (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1998), English Word-Formation. And we have tried to bring in as well the views of specialists in psycholinguistics and language acquisition. Bauer (1998b: 73) considers a broader version of this criterion for noun + noun complexes, pointing out that it seems impossible to modify the first stem in river-bed with an adjective: *swollen river-bed (where it is the river that is meant to be swollen). For example, Jones (1969: 258) presents three semantic criteria conditioning the presence of a single main stress on the left-hand constituent: a. On the other hand, N + N combinations that exhibit complement-head structures (e.g. Giegerich considers as well the extent to which the meanings of various types of N + N combination can be correlated with their stress behaviour. Conversion is traditionally viewed as a word-formation technique of forming a word from a formally identical but categorically different word without adding a(n explicit) morphological exponent. Our intention is to complicate our view both theoretically and descriptively. Found insideThis controversial new book addresses the linguistic problems around compounds: words which sit on the borderline of syntax and morphology. Ablative of Comparison with Comparative Adjectives, Tips on How to Memorize the Comparative and Superlative Forms of Seven Irregular Latin Adjectives. Biotech Compound: A chemical entity that forms the starting point in the drug development process. The next three chapters take a view towards the language user as well, looking at the perception, processing, and acquisition of compounds. We hope that ultimately this volume will serve as a resource for scholars and as a starting point and inspiration for those who wish to continue the work that still needs to be done on compounding. Mithun (1999: 48–50) argues, for example, for what she calls ‘lexical affixes’ in many Native American languages. Her interests include morphological theory, especially derivation and compounding, lexical semantics, and the morphology-syntax interface. As has frequently been pointed out, however, there are many languages in which non-compound-specific inflection does sometimes occur on the non-head of a compound, and discussion centres on how to interpret such cases. Found inside – Page 359Marchand ( 1969 : 2 ) distinguishes between formation involving ' full linguistic signs ' , i.e. compounding , prefixation , suffixation , derivation by the ... Indeed, in Štekauer, Körtvélyessy, and Valera's (2007) core sample of fifty-four languages, only forty-nine displayed compounding. Lexical Structures: Compounding and the Modules of Grammar. There are two problems with this conclusion. Found inside – Page 18The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis, 826–855. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ... Heyvaert, Liesbeth 2009 Compounding in cognitive linguistics. Guevara and Scalise 2009 used another classification in their cross-linguistic research: they divided all compounds into subordinate, attributive, and coordinate. English has a genius for the formation of these compound words. And on the other, it is not entirely clear to us (knowing virtually nothing about biology!) e. Could you please babysit for me. This applies to novel compounds as well as to lexicalized ones, so left-hand stress in attribute-head collocations cannot be attributed to lexicalization, as Giegerich suggests. Found inside – Page 77Compounding Compounding is the concatenation of two (or more) lexemes to form a single new lexeme. Because compounding always results in the creation of a ... Here's what they found, on the basis of sixteen languages in their sample: Laurie Bauer also did a cross-linguistic comparison of compounding on the basis of thirty-six languages. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 2000), and Meaning Predictability in Word-Formation (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins). We suspect that we will never agree on what this particular elephant looks like, but if this volume accomplishes only one purpose, it should be to improve our certainty that there really is an elephant. Found inside – Page 224Compounding. Computational Linguistics. Compositional semantics includes all approaches to the meaning of natural language that subsume, in one formulation ... Among those themes are the following: • The definitional problem: Just about every article in this volume starts out by mentioning the difficulty in figuring out what constitutes a compound, either cross-linguistically or language-specifically. Chapters 2 and 3 continue our focus on issues of definition and classification. Found inside – Page 124Selected Papers from the 40th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), ... The prediction is that if a language has productive N–N compounding, ... Compounding in Spanish. With very few exceptions, English compound words are stressed on their first component stem. Bauer's definition also runs afoul of what we have called the ‘macro question’: how do we distinguish compounds from phrasal forms? The study proposes a process-based morphological paradigm structure which involves compounding and derivational operations. Certainly the most reliable of these is the inseparability criterion: a complex form is a compound (as opposed to a phrase) if no other element can be inserted between the two constituents. These words often develop over time. Noun + Verb Compounding In Western Romance (UC Publications In Linguistics) Kathryn Klingebiel, Vers Une Civilisation Du Loisir ? Football, bathroom, blackboard, blackbox, etc. Comer on the campus map. Compounding is defined as combining two or more stems to form a new word that is stored as a single entry in the lexicon, e.g., 'blackbird' or 'three-year-old'. (13) Chuckchee (aka Chukot; Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Siberia) a. T@ I-jaa-distant-racw@N-compete-melgar-gun-maraw-fight-@rken.-pres 'I am fighting a . Ugly can only modify the compound as a whole: ugly blackbird. For example in steel bridge, the noun steel modifies bridge, and therefore is a phrase and has right-hand stress. our understanding of what constitutes a compound by looking not only at familiar languages, but also at a range of typologically and areally diverse languages. In the 1960 edition of his magnum opus, Marchand, for example, assumes that “[w]hen two or more words are combined into a morphological unit, we speak of a compound” (1960: 11). they can in fact be analysed and accounted for within a cognitive linguistic framework, by the combined application of metaphor, metonymy, blending, profile determinacy and schema theory; and represent the creative and . Fradin (this volume) points out that word order gives us evidence for compoundhood in French: if a sequence of lexemes displays an order that cannot be generated for syntactic phrases, we are likely dealing with a compound.7. The morpheme which determines the category of the entire word is called the head. (p. 12) So, for example, she argues that the compound mucus cell is left-stressed because ‘we … know that mucus generally “lines” cells’ (ibid.). al compound linguistic compound Compound noun and adjective In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word or sign) that consists of more than one stem. The last of these examples is also cited by Plag (2006). Spelling is generally rejected as a criterion of compoundhood in English because the spelling of compounds is so inconsistent.2 Although there might seem to be a tendency for institutionalized compounds to be spelled as one word or hyphenated (cf. But this definition of compound is rooted in the analytical features of English, in particular, its lack of inflectional morphemes. Found inside – Page 351Cross-linguistic variation. Both similarity and variation can be detected in compounding in various languages, as is the case with word-formation in general ... Within Indo-European, the sample is again disproportionately represented by Germanic (English, Dutch, German, Danish) and Romance (French, Spanish), again partly because there has been longstanding and active debate about compounding in these subfamilies. knowledge we know of no special correlations between aspects of compounding and other typological characteristics of languages cross-linguistically. For example, are appositional compounds rare, not that common, common, or extremely common across the documented natural languages? Does activating a magic item that does not specifically require an action still require an action? What we are forced to conclude is that for English, at least, left-hand stress is often a mark of compoundhood, but certainly cannot be taken as either a necessary or a sufficient condition for distinguishing a compound from a phrase. Found inside – Page 250Between compounding and derivation – Elements of word-formation corresponding to prepositions. ... In Encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics, ed. It is organized as follows. Conversion is the process in which a word of one grammatical form converts into a word of another grammatical form without any changes to pronunciation or spelling. But Plag's experimental data extend this result to compounds based It then describes the most important of the criteria for distinguishing compounds: (i) stress and other phonological means; (ii) syntactic impenetrability, inseparability, and unalterability; and (iii) the behaviour of the complex item with respect to inflection. b. V+N or N+V c. hunting reindeer → reindeer hunting d. I am bear/duck/moose hunting. The meaning of a compound is not affected by spelling. In these cases, Marchand (1960: 15) employs the following compoundhood criterion: the first constituent cannot syntactically function as a modifier of the right-hand constituent. Compounding Compounding forms a word out of two or more root morphemes. We will offer a brief overview of the volume in section 1.2, but first we try to take our own first pass at this distinctive species of word formation: do we really know what a compound is? children's hour). Descriptively, we hope to sharpen In the remainder of this section, we look at the facts of compounding in a range of languages. Another conclusion might be that there is simply a cline of more compound-like and less compound-like complexes, with no clear categorical distinction. That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined to make one longer word. 2. Found inside – Page 43Compounding is also basically found in content words. Hence, nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are the major word classes often used in compounding ... (p. 9) For example: The four types of clipping are back clipping, fore-clipping, middle clipping, and complex clipping. Compounding is a very common process in most languages of the world (especially among synthetic languages). Since compound words behave as units, between their component elements no af- 6. Stress is a more relevant criterion for determining compoundhood, at least for English, and has been the focus of intensive research in recent decades. Abstract This study attempts to classify compound words on the basis of Cognitive Linguistics and compares their usage trends using Computational Linguistics. This volume brings together contributions by experts involved in a wide range of such areas, based on a large number of diverse languages ù spoken and signed. Back clipping is removing the end of a word as in gas from gasoline. Endocentric compounds have a head that determines the meaning and the category of the compound, and in English, the head is the second part of the compound. There are a number of problems with her hypothesis, however. SIGN LANGUAGES AND COMPOUNDING IRIT MEIR, MARK ARONOFF, WENDY SANDLER, CAROL PADDEN IRIT MEIR Department of Hebrew Language Department of Communication Disorders University of Haifa 31905 Haifa, Israel imeir@univ.haifa.ac.il MARK ARONOFF Department of Linguistics SUNY Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4376 mark.aronoff@sunysb.edu WENDY SANDLER (p. 14) We conceived of this volume in the fear that our current picture of ‘compoundhood’ might be like the blind men's elephant, and in the hope that by putting together the disparate pieces of what we know, something like the whole elephant might appear. Although some linguists would say that "bittersweet" is appositional because "bitter" and "sweet" describe the same referent. In some cases a hyphen is used and they are written as one word and in other cases no hyphen is used. But Marchand, in ‘Expansion, transposition, and derivation’ (1967), presents another view, in effect saying that compounds don't exist as a separate sort of word formation; indeed, he distinguishes only two basic categories of word formation: expansion and derivation. On the other hand, a compound like programmes list doesn't seem to have any possible contrast: a programme list wouldn't be a list if it didn't involve more than one programme. Generally speaking, how common is each of these types of compounds across languages? There are also language-specific syntactic criteria for distinguishing compounds from phrases. Compounding is a linguistic phenomenon that might at first glance seem straightforward: in his introductory text Bauer (2003: 40) defines a compound as ‘the formation of a new lexeme by adjoining two or more lexemes’. But it seems clear to us, as to Selkirk, that some of these forms indeed do denote plurals. This book presents a comprehensive review of theoretical work on the linguistics and psycholinguistics of compound words and combines it with a series of surveys of compounding in a variety of languages from a wide range of language families. (p. 8) Joffre DUMAZEDIER, 35 Miles Around London Road Map (A-Z Road Maps & Atlases) Geographers' A-Z Map Company, A Music Of Grace: The Sacred In Contemporary American Poetry (American University Studies) Jeanne Foster At first, it seems that the (semantic) classification of compounds you found in Wikipedia was proposed by Geert Booij, with some modifications (he uses the term appositive). In most cases, however, the literature does not allow us to tell how consistently these criteria distinguish compounding as a type of word formation. While the general pattern of compounds is easily accounted for, exceptional forms abound. By clicking “Accept all cookies”, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy. A form of compounding based on syntactic movement of a noun to a verb. That leaves us with the most important of the criteria for distinguishing compounds: (i) stress and other phonological means; (ii) syntactic impenetrability, inseparability, and unalterability; and (iii) the behaviour of the complex item with respect to inflection. When the second compound constituent is felt to be especially important the compound is double stressed (ʼbow ʼwindow, ʼeye ʼwitness) (Jones 1969: 259). So distinguishing lexemes from non-lexemes might not be possible in semantic terms. Donalies (2004: 76), for example, analyses Germanic, Romance, Slavic, Finno-Ugric, and Modern Greek constructions in terms of ten postulated criteria. In spite of extensive research into compounds and compounding processes, there are hardly any universally accepted criteria for determining what a compound is. In particular, it appears that the first constituents of items that we would otherwise have reason to call compounds can sometimes be coordinated, for example wind and water mills or hypo- but not hyperglycaemic (Spencer 2003). PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). Some of these explanations take syntactic form as relevant. But does a form like tomato bowl constitute a new lexeme if I use that term in pointing to a bowl on the counter that just happens at this moment to be holding tomatoes? Cognitive Linguistics, Compounding, schematization, control cycle model; No escape from categorization: An insider's view of compounds. Keywords: linguistics, transparency, opacity, compounding, translation 1. So we return to the blind men and the elephant: not only are we not sure what the elephant looks like, but some of us are not even sure there's an elephant at all. b. But there are languages in which items that have been formally identified as affixes have as much, or nearly as much, semantic substance as items that might be identified as roots in other languages. For a different view, see, for example, Arnold (1966) and Achmanova (1958). An original study of both structural entitiesoriginating in the lexicon, and the structural characteristics of thelexicon as a module of formal grammar, this book makes two contributions toour understanding of the formal grammar of English. Endocentric compound is a type of compound in which one member functions as the head and the other as its modifier, attributing a property to the head.The relation between the members of an endocentric compound can be schematized as 'AB is (a) B'. a word consisting of no fewer than two stems, each having a full lexical meaning, that together form a structural and semantic unit. Found inside – Page 645Introducing linguistic morphology, 2nd edn. ... In Rochelle Lieber and Pavol Štekauer (eds), The Oxford handbook of compounding, 343–56. Found inside – Page 280BOTHA , R.P. 1980a Roeper and Siegel's theory of verbal compounding : a critical appraisal . Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics 4 , 1-45 . In terms of theory, we consider compounding from disparate frameworks, both generative and non-generative, and from different perspectives: synchronic, diachronic, psycholinguistic, and developmental. Copyright © 2021 Bright Hub Education. His research has focused on an onomasiological approach to word-formation, sociolinguistic aspects of word-formation, meaning predictability of complex words, and crosslinguistic research into wotrd-formation. We can identify two main reasons why it is difficult to come up with a satisfying and universally applicable definition of ‘compound’. these items are clearly verbal.1 Second, even though over and out also occur as free morphemes in English, the form that attaches to the verbs fly and run behaves rather differently from the first element of a compound. Clipping is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word. Found inside – Page 126linguistic form, through shared constituent elements that reflect the ... patterns of compounding in linguistics, terminology and computational linguistics, ... Found inside – Page 230Selected Papers from the 37th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL) ... which is based on the connection between productive compounding (like N-N ... Certainly we would be hesitant to call items like these lexemes. Pavol Štekauer is Professor of English linguistics at P.J. In the first, we look at compounds from a broad range of perspectives, both methodological and theoretical. She is the author of several books: On the Organization of the Lexicon (IULC, 1981), An Integrated Theory of Autosegmental Processes (State University of New York Press, 1987), Deconstructing Morphology (University of Chicago Press, 1992), Morphology and Lexical Semantics (Cambridge University Press, 2004), and Introducing Morphology (Cambridge University Press, 2010). This book presents a comprehensive review of theoretical work on the linguistics and psycholinguistics of compound words and combines it with a series of surveys of compounding in a variety of languages from a wide range of language ... wikipedi Define compounding. In this system, the compound marker has a formal paradigmatic function: it creates correct lexeme forms based on bare Noun-Noun compounds, which would otherwise serve as input to certain derivational operations. We will start with the issue of stress, and then look more carefully at the other phonological and syntactic criteria mentioned above. Languages other than English of course have other phonological means for distinguishing compounds from syntactic phrases, among them: distinctive tonal patterns (Bambara [Bauer, Chapter 17, this volume]; Hausa [Newman 2000:190, 116]; Konni [Štekauer, Körtvélyessy, and Valera 2007: 66]); vowel harmony (Chuckchee [Bauer, Chapter 17, this volume]); stress patterns (German, Danish, modern Greek, Polish, Hebrew [see articles in this volume]; Ket [Štekauer, Körtvélyessy, and Valera 2007: 66]); segmental effects like fricative voicing (Slave [Rice, this volume]) or voicing (Japanese [Bauer, Chapter 17, this volume]); vowel deletion (Hebrew [Borer, this volume]) or vowel reduction (Maipure, Baniva [Zamponi, this volume]).

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